Age Restriction

Minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws of 21 in the U.S. refer to a minimum age required to purchase alcohol in a state and measures aimed at preventing people under the minimum age from accessing alcohol. MLDA laws have significantly reduced drinking and drinking-related problems among adolescents and young adults, including education drop-out rates, car crashes, crime, injuries, assaults and suicides. There is also evidence that the relaxation of age restrictions contributes to heavier use later in life.  

  1. The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Morbidity in the United States
    Carpenter C, Dobkin C. Review of Economics and Statistics. 99(1), 95-104.
    Date: 2017
  2. The Impact of Drinking Age Laws on Perpetration of Sexual Assault Crimes in Canada, 2009–2013
    Gatley JMMPH, Sanches MMS, Benny C, Wells SPD, Callaghan RCPD. Journal of Adolescent Health. 61(1), 24-31.
    Date: 2017
  3. Student Perceptions of a New Campus Alcohol Policy: Linking Deterrence and Blame Attribution
    Kelley MS. Journal of Drug Issues. 47(3), 411-432.
    Date: 2017
  4. Drinking Cultures in University Residential Colleges: An Australian Case Study of the Role of Alcohol Policy, Management, and Organizational Processes
    Leontini R, Schofield T, Brown R, Hepworth J. Contemporary Drug Problems. 44(1), 32.
    Date: 2017
  5. Increased Minimum Legal Age for the Sale of Alcohol in the Netherlands as of 2014: The Effect on Alcohol Sellers’ Compliance After One and Two Years
    Schelleman-Offermans K, Roodbeen RTJ, Lemmens PHHM. International Journal of Drug Policy. 49, 8-14.
    Date: 2017
  6. Do Drinking-Age Laws Have an Impact on Crime? Evidence from Canada, 2009–2013
    Callaghan RC, Gatley JM, Sanches M, Benny C. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 167, 67-74.
    Date: 2016
  7. The Mechanisms of Alcohol Control
    Carpenter CS, Dobkin C, Warman C. Journal of Human Resources. 51(2), 328-356.
    Date: 2016
  8. Selected State Policies and Associations with Alcohol Use Behaviors and Risky Driving Behaviors Among Youth: Findings from Monitoring the Future Study
    Cavazos-Rehg PA, Housten AJ, Krauss MJ, Sowles SJ, Spitznagel EL, Chaloupka FJ, Bierut LJ. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 40(5), 1030-1036.
    Date: 2016
  9. Ethanol Values During College Football Season: University Policy Change and Emergency Department Blood Ethanol Values from 2006 Through 2014
    Fierro-Fine AC, Harland K, House HR, Krasowski MD. Lab Medicine. 47(4), 300-305.
    Date: 2016
  10. Underage Drinking: A Review of Trends and Prevention Strategies
    Harding FM HR, Klitzner M, Mosher JF, Brown J, Vincent RM, Dahl E, Cannon CL. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 4 Suppl 2, 148-157.
    Date: 2016
  11. Breaking the Link Between Legal Access to Alcohol and Motor Vehicle Accidents: Evidence from New South Wales
    Lindo JM, Siminski P, Yerokhin O. Health Economics. 25(7), 908-928.
    Date: 2016
  12. Drinking Location and Pregaming As Predictors of Alcohol Intoxication Among Mandated College Students
    Miller MB, Borsari B, Fernandez AC, Yurasek AM, John TPH. Substance Use & Misuse. 51(8), 983-992.
    Date: 2016
  13. The Impact of the Minimum Legal Drinking Age on Alcohol‐Related Chronic Disease Mortality
    Plunk AD, Krauss MJ, Syed-Mohammed H, Hur M, Cavzos-Rehg PA, Bierut LJ, Grucza RA. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 40(8), 1761-1768.
    Date: 2016
  14. Alcohol and Tobacco Sales to Underage Buyers in Dutch Supermarkets: Can the Use of Age Verification Systems Increase Seller's Compliance?
    Roodbeen RTJ, Schelleman-Offermans K, Lemmens PHHM. Journal of Adolescent Health. 58(6), 672-678.
    Date: 2016
  15. An Empirical Investigation of the Influence of Alcohol Policy and Gender on University Students' Drinking Behavior
    Sharma B, Reinhard K. The Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends. 14(1), 1-13.
    Date: 2016
  16. The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Crime
    Carpenter C, Dobkin C. Review of Economics and Statistics. 97(2), 521-524.
    Date: 2015
  17. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities
    Fairlie AM, DeJong W, Wood MD. Substance Abuse. 36(3), 289-296.
    Date: 2015
  18. The Utility of Including the Strengths of Underage Drinking Laws in Determining Their Effect on Outcomes
    Fell JC, Scherer M, Voas R. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 39(8), 1528-1537.
    Date: 2015
  19. Impacts of New Zealand's Lowered Minimum Purchase Age on Context‐Specific Drinking and Related Risks
    Gruenewald PJ, Treno AJ, Ponicki WR, Huckle T, Yeh LC, Casswell S. Addiction. 110(11), 1757-1766.
    Date: 2015
  20. The Effects of Random Breath Testing and Lowering the Minimum Legal Drinking Age on Traffic Fatalities in Australian States
    Jiang H, Livingston M, Manton E. Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention. 21(2), 77-83.
    Date: 2015
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