Balance Consumer Interests and Health and Safety Considerations

Identifying and applying best policy practices helps balance competing interests of industry, public health, government and consumers; however, determining the optimal set of policies for a specific jurisdiction is complicated. Governments must assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of policies to minimize, and potentially through taxation, mitigate the cost of alcohol-related social and health harms while also ensuring low-risk drinkers have fair and equitable access to alcohol.

  1. State Pre-Emption, Local Control, and Alcohol Retail Outlet Density Regulation
    Mosher JF, Treffers RD. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 44(4), 399-405.
    Date: 2013 (archived)
  2. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Policies and Programs to Reduce the Harm Caused by Alcohol
    Anderson P, Chisholm D, Fuhr DC. Lancet. 373(9682), 2234-2246.
    Date: 2009 (archived)
  3. Global Burden of Disease and Injury and Economic Cost Attributable to Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Use Disorders
    Rehm J, Mathers C, Popova S, Thavorncharoensap M, Teerawattananon Y, Patra J. Lancet. 373, 2223-2233.
    Date: 2009 (archived)
  4. Policy Implications of the Widespread Practice of ‘Pre-Drinking’ or ‘Pre-Gaming’ Before Going to Public Drinking Establishments: Are Current Prevention Strategies Backfiring?
    Wells S, Graham K, Purcell J. Addiction. 104(1), 4-9.
    Date: 2009 (archived)
  5. Avoidable Cost of Alcohol Abuse in Canada 2002: Highlights
    Rehm J, Gnam WH, Popova S, Patra J, Sarnocinska-Hart A. Ontario: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto. .
    Date: 2008 (archived)
  6. Comparative Analysis of Alcohol Control Policies in 30 Countries
    Brand DA, Saisana M, Rynn LA, Pennoni F, Lowenfels AB. PLoS Medicine. 4(4), e151.
    Date: 2007 (archived)
  7. Paying the Tab: The Costs and Benefits of Alcohol Control
    Cook PJ. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. .
    Date: 2007 (archived)
  8. Reducing Alcohol-Related Damage in Populations: Rethinking the Roles of Education and Persuasion Interventions
    Giesbrecht N. Addiction. 102(9), 1345-1349.
    Date: 2007 (archived)
  9. Alcohol, Gender, Culture and Harms in the Americas PAHO Multicentric Study Final Report
    Taylor B, Rehm J, Aburto JTC, Bejarano J, Cayetano C, Kerr-Correa F, Ferrand MP, Gmel G, Graham K, Greenfield TK, Laranjeira R, Lima MC, Magri R, Monteiro M, Mora MEM, Munne M, Romero MP, Tucchi A, Wilsnack S. Washington: Pan American Health Organization. .
    Date: 2007 (archived)
  10. Alcohol Policies: Is there a Future for Public Health Considerations in a Commerce-Oriented Environment?
    Giesbrecht NA, Room R, Demers A, Lindquist E, Ogborne A, Bondy S, . Montreal, Quebec, Canada: McGill–Queen’s University Press. .
    Date: 2006 (archived)
  11. Patterns of Drinking and Mortality from Different Diseases – An Overview
    Rehm J, Greenfield TK, Kerr WC. Contemporary Drug Problems. 33(2), 205-235.
    Date: 2006 (archived)
  12. The State Sets the Rate: The Relationship Among State-Specific College Binge Drinking, State Binge Drinking Rates, and Selected State Alcohol Control Policies
    Nelson TF, Naimi TS, Brewer RD, Wechsler H. American Journal of Public Health. 95(3), 441-446.
    Date: 2005 (archived)
  13. Alcohol Consumption and Burden of Disease in the Americas – Implications for Alcohol Policy
    Rehm J, Monteiro M. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica. 18(4/5), 241-248.
    Date: 2005 (archived)
  14. Recommendations for New Directions in the Prevention of Risky Substance Use and Related Harms
    Stockwell T Gruenewald P Toubourou J, Loxley W. Preventing Harmful Substance Use: The Evidence Base for Policy and Practice. Chichester. UK: Wiley.
    Date: 2005 (archived)
  15. A Study of the Alcohol Policy Development Process in the United States: Theory, Goals, and Methods
    Greenfield TK, Giesbrecht NA, Kaskutas LA, Johnson S, Kavanagh L, Anglin L. Contemporary Drug Problems. 31(Winter), 591-626.
    Date: 2004 (archived)
  16. The Role of Research in the Development of United States Federal Alcohol Control Policy
    Johnson S, Greenfield TK, Giesbrecht N, Kaskutas LA, Anglin L. Contemporary Drug Problems. 31(Winter), 737-758.
    Date: 2004 (archived)
  17. Testing New Models in Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish Alcohol Policies
    Karlsson T Tigerstedt C. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 21, 79-91.
    Date: 2004 (archived)
  18. Effective and Cost-Effective Measures to Reduce Alcohol Misuse in Scotland: An Update
    Ludbrook A. Scottish Executive. Edinburgh, Scotland. [http: //]. .
    Date: 2004 (archived)
  19. Alcohol Use
    Rehm J, Room R, Monteiro M, Gmel G, Graham K, Rehn N, . World Health Organization, Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors (Vol. 1, pp. 959-1108). Geneva, Switzerland. .
    Date: 2004 (archived)
  20. Association of Alcohol-Related Laws with Deaths Due to Motor Vehicle and Motorcycle Crashes in the United States, 1980-1997
    Villaveces A, Cummings P, Koepsell TD, Rivara FP, Lumley T, Moffat J. American Journal of Epidemiology. 157(2), 131-140.
    Date: 2003 (archived)