Alcohol use has significant social and economic costs measured by premature deaths, poor quality of life, disability-adjusted life years, lost earnings and productivity and the burden placed on health care, enforcement and the criminal justice system. These costs, when assigned a dollar value, far exceed revenue generated from alcohol taxes and sales, and provide a clearer understanding of alcohol’s burden on society as a whole. 

  1. Which Cost of Alcohol? What Should We Compare It Against?
    Bhattacharya A. Addiction. 112(4), 559-565.
    Date: 2017
  2. The Costs of Hazardous Alcohol Consumption in Germany
    Effertz T, Verheyen F, Linder R. The European Journal of Health Economics. 18(6), 703-713.
    Date: 2017
  3. Economic Analyses of an Alcohol Misconduct Prevention Program in a Military Setting
    Li T, Waters TM, Kaplan EK, Kaplan CM, Nyarko KA, Derefinko KJ, Klesges RC. Military Medicine. 182(1-2), e1562-e1567.
    Date: 2017
  4. Heterogeneous Costs of Alcohol and Drug Problems Across Cities and Counties in California
    Miller TR, Nygaard P, Gaidus A, Grube JW, Ponicki WR, Lawrence BA, Gruenewald PJ. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 41(4), 758-768.
    Date: 2017
  5. The Health-Related Social Costs of Alcohol in Belgium
    Verhaeghe N, Lievens D, Annemans L, Vander Laenen F, Putman K. BMC Public Health. 17(1), 958.
    Date: 2017
  6. The Economic and Societal Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes, 2010 (Revised)
    Blincoe L, Miller TR, Zaloshnja E, Lawrence BA. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 66(2), 194-196.
    Date: 2015
  7. 2010 National and State Costs of Excessive Alcohol Consumption
    Sacks JJ, Gonzales KR, Bouchery EE, Tomedi LE, Brewer RD. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 49(5), e73-e79.
    Date: 2015
  8. Economic Costs of Excessive Alcohol Consumption in the United States, 2006
    Bouchery EE, Harwood HJ, Sacks JJ, Simon CJ, Brewer RD. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 41(5), 516-524.
    Date: 2011 (archived)
  9. Measuring Costs of Alcohol Harm to Others: A Review of the Literature
    Navarro HJ, Doran CM, Shakeshaft AP. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 114(2-3), 87-99.
    Date: 2011 (archived)
  10. Costs of FASD
    Thanh NX, Jonsson E, Dennett L, Jacobs P. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Management and Policy Perspectives of FASD (pp. 45-68). New York: Wiley. .
    Date: 2011 (archived)
  11. Effectiveness and Cost- Effectiveness of Policies and Programs to Reduce the Harm Caused by Alcohol
    Anderson P, Chisholm D, Fuhr DC. The Lancet. 373(9682), 2234-2246.
    Date: 2009 (archived)
  12. Global Burden of Disease and Injury and Economic Cost Attributable to Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Use Disorders
    Rehm J, Mathers C, Popova S, Thavorncharoensap M, Teerawattananon Y, Patra J. The Lancet. 373(9682), 2223-2233.
    Date: 2009 (archived)
  13. Employer Costs of Alcohol-Involved Injuries
    Zaloshnja E, Miller TR, Hendrie D, Galvin D. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 50(2), 136-142.
    Date: 2007 (archived)
  14. Estimate of the Commercial Value of Underage Drinking and Adult Abusive and Dependent Drinking to the Alcohol Industry
    Foster SE, Vaughan RD, Foster WH, Califano JA, Jr. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 160(5), 473-478.
    Date: 2006 (archived)
  15. Societal Costs of Underage Drinking
    Miller TR, Levy DT, Spicer RS, Taylor DM. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 67(4), 519-528.
    Date: 2006 (archived)
  16. Alcohol Consumption in Older Adults and Medicare Costs
    Mukamal KJ, Lumley T, Luepker RV, Lapin P, Mittleman MA, McBean AM, . Health Care Financing Review. 27(3), 49-61.
    Date: 2006 (archived)
  17. Alcohol Consumption, Risk of Injury, and High-Cost Medical Care
    Salomé HJ, French MT, Matzger H, Weisner C. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 32(4), 368-380.
    Date: 2005 (archived)
  18. Reducing the Global Burden of Hazardous Alcohol Use: A Comparative Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
    Chisholm D, Rehm J, Van Ommeren M, Monteiro M. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 65, 782-793.
    Date: 2004 (archived)
  19. Alcohol Consumption and Expenditures for Underage Drinking and Adult Excessive Drinking
    Foster SE, Vaughan RD, Foster WH, Califano JA. Journal of the American Medical Association. 289(8), 989-995.
    Date: 2003 (archived)
  20. The Costs of Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use
    Zarkin GA, Bray JW, Davis KL, Babor TF. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 64, 849-857.
    Date: 2003 (archived)