Given beer, wine and spirits have different ethanol content, sales volume and drinker type preferences (e.g., heavy, moderate, underage), and thereby have differential health effects, governments often apply distinct regulations to each beverage type to help control their use. Such control measures include differences in where and when beverage types can be sold, advertising restrictions, tax rates and labeling requirements. While historically the U.S. has adopted more stringent regulations for spirits, and research supports the more stringent treatment of spirits, harms related to beverage type, particularly those higher alcohol content products, such as spirits, remains an understudied area.  

  1. Changes in Self-Reported Drinking Behaviors Among United States Teenagers Associated with the Introduction of Flavored Malt Beverages: An Interrupted Time Series Quasi-Experiment
    Dumsha JZ, DiTomasso RA, Gomez FC, Melucci NJ, Stouch BC. Addiction Research and Theory. 19(3), 199-212.
    Date: 2011 (archived)
  2. A Bottle of Beer, a Glass of Wine or a Shot of Whiskey? Can the Rate of Alcohol- Induced Harm Be Affected by Altering the Population’s Beverage Choice?
    Mäkelä P, Hellman M, Kerr WC, Room R. Contemporary Drug Problems. 38(4), 599-619.
    Date: 2011 (archived)
  3. Differences in Trouble Per Litre of Different Alcoholic Beverages – a Global Comparison with the GENACIS Dataset
    Room R, Ferris J, Bond J, Greenfield TK, Graham K. Contemporary Drug Problems. 38(4), 493-516.
    Date: 2011 (archived)
  4. Alcoholic Beverage Preferences and Associated Drinking Patterns and Risk Behaviors Among High School Youth
    Siegel MB, Naimi TS, Cremeens JL, Nelson DE. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 40(4), 419-426.
    Date: 2011 (archived)
  5. Effects of a Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors Among Urban Youth
    Maldonado-Molina MM, Reingle JM, Tobler AL, Komro KA. Journal of Drug Education. 40(3), 265-280.
    Date: 2010 (archived)
  6. Differential Alcohol Expectancies Based on Type of Alcoholic Beverage Consumed
    Pedersen ER, Neighbors C, Larimer ME. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 71(6), 925-929.
    Date: 2010 (archived)
  7. What Do the Bingers Drink?
    Srivastava PPD, Zhao X. Economic Papers. 29(2), 229-250.
    Date: 2010 (archived)
  8. Low-Alcohol Beers: Contribution to Blood-Ethanol Concentration and Its Elevation Above the UK Legal Limit After ‘Topping-Up'
    Badawy AA, Morgan CJ, Thomas R. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 44(4), 403-408.
    Date: 2009 (archived)
  9. The Role of Alcoholic Beverage Preference in the Severity of Alcohol Dependence and Adherence to the Treatment
    Baltieri DA, Daro FR, Ribeiro PL, De Andrade AG. Alcohol. 43(3), 185-195.
    Date: 2009 (archived)
  10. Reported Beverage Consumed and Alcohol-Related Diseases Among Male Hospital Inpatients with Problem Drinking
    Coder B, Freyer-Adam J, Lau K, Riedel J, Rumpf HJ, Meyer C, . Alcohol and Alcoholism. 44(2), 216-221.
    Date: 2009 (archived)
  11. Energy Intake Estimates of Respondent-Measured Alcoholic Beverages
    Tujague J, Kerr WC. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 44(1), 34-41.
    Date: 2009 (archived)
  12. What Am I Drinking?
    Bui M, Burton S, Howlett E, Kozup JC. The Journal of Consumer Affairs. 42(1), 81-99.
    Date: 2008 (archived)
  13. Cues That Signal the Alcohol Content of a Beverage and their Effectiveness at Altering Drinking Rates in Young Social Drinkers
    Higgs S, Stafford LD, Attwood AS, Walker SC, Terry P. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 6-Jan.
    Date: 2008 (archived)
  14. Chemical Composition of Vintage Pre-ban Absinthe with Special Reference to Thujone, Fenchone, Pinocamphone, Methanol, Copper, and Antimony Concentrations
    Lachenmeier DW, Nathan-Maister D, Breaux TA, Sohnius EM, Schoeberl K, Kuballa T. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 56(9), 3073-3081.
    Date: 2008 (archived)
  15. Distribution of Alcohol Consumption and Expenditures and the Impact of Improved Measurement on Coverage of Alcohol Sales in the 2000 National Alcohol Survey
    Kerr WC, Greenfield TK. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 31(10), 1714-1722.
    Date: 2007 (archived)
  16. How Many Drinks Does It Take You to Feel Drunk?
    Kerr WC, Greenfield TK, Midanik LT. Addiction. 101(10), 1428-1437.
    Date: 2006 (archived)
  17. ‘I Drink Spirits to Get Drunk and Block Out My Problems...’ Beverage Preference, Drinking Motives and Alcohol Use in Adolescence
    Kuntsche E, Knibbe R, Gmel G, Engels R. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 41(5), 566-573.
    Date: 2006 (archived)
  18. High Alcohol Consumption in Germany: Results of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998
    Burger M, Mensink GB. Public Health Nutrition. 7(7), 879-884.
    Date: 2004 (archived)
  19. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Risk of Becoming a Heavy Drinker
    Jensen MK, Andersen AT, Sorensen TI, Becker U, Thorsen T, Gronbaek M. Epidemiology. 13(2), 127-132.
    Date: 2002 (archived)
  20. Where Have All the Winos Gone?
    Klatsky AL. Epidemiology. 13(2), 120-122.
    Date: 2002 (archived)