Mortality and Morbidity

Even in low and moderate amounts, drinking alcohol increases the risk of chronic diseases, such as various cancers, and coronary heart disease, illnesses, injuries and disabilities, and causes harms that extend beyond the drinker to include family, friends and the larger community. Estimates of alcohol-related morbidity and mortality rates also consider quantity and frequency of consumption to determine how drinking affects a person’s health. 

  1. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in 4 United States Communities
    May PA, Chambers CD, Kalberg WO, Zellner J, Feldman H, Buckley D, Hoyme HE. JAMA. 319(5), 474.
    Date: 2018
  2. Global Prevalence of Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking During Pregnancy, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
    Popova S, Lange S, Probst C, Gmel G, Rehm J. Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire. 96(2), 237-240.
    Date: 2018
  3. Societal Costs of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Sweden
    Ericson L, Magnusson L, Hovstadius B. The European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care. 18(5), 575-585.
    Date: 2017
  4. Global Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Among Children and Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Lange S, Probst C, Gmel G, Rehm J, Burd L, Popova S. JAMA Pediatrics. 171(10), 948-956.
    Date: 2017
  5. Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Among the General and Aboriginal Populations in Canada and the United States
    Popova S, Lange S, Probst C, Parunashvili N, Rehm J. European Journal of Medical Genetics. 60(1), 32-48.
    Date: 2017
  6. Estimation of National, Regional, and Global Prevalence of Alcohol Use During Pregnancy and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Popova SP, Lange SMPH, Probst CM, Gmel GM, Rehm JP. Lancet Global Health. 5(3), e290-e299.
    Date: 2017
  7. Impact of Fetal Alcohol Exposure on Body Systems: A Systematic Review
    Caputo C, Wood E, Jabbour L. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews. 108(2), 174-180.
    Date: 2016
  8. Fetal Alcohol Growth Restriction and Cognitive Impairment
    Carter RC, Jacobson JL, Molteno CD, Dodge NC, Meintjes EM, Jacobson SW. Pediatrics. 138(2), e20160775.
    Date: 2016
  9. Burden and Social Cost of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
    Popova S, Lange S, Burd L, Rehm J. Oxford University Press. 51(3), 367-75.
    Date: 2016
  10. Comorbidity of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Popova SD, Lange SMPH, Shield KP, Mihic AM, Chudley AEP, Mukherjee RASP, Rehm JP. The Lancet. 387(10022), 978-987.
    Date: 2016
  11. Worldwide Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Literature Review Including Meta-Analysis
    Roozen S, Peters GJY, Kok G, Townend D, Nijhuis J, Curfs L. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research. 40(1), 18-32.
    Date: 2016
  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, FASD, and Child Behavior: A Meta-Analysis
    Tsang TW, Lucas BR, Carmichael Olson H, Pinto RZ, Elliott EJ. Pediatrics. 137(3), e20152542.
    Date: 2016
  13. Maternal Alcohol Consumption Before and During Pregnancy and the Risks of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Maternal Alcohol Consumption and CHD in Offspring
    Sun J, Chen X, Chen H, Ma Z, Zhou J. Congenital Heart Disease. 10(5), E216-E224.
    Date: 2015
  14. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Congenital Heart Defects: A Meta-Analysis
    Yang J, Qiu H, Qu P, Zhang R, Zeng L, Yan H. PloS One. 10(6), e0130681.
    Date: 2015
  15. Fine Motor Skills in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure or Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
    Doney R, Lucas BR, Jones T, Howat P, Sauer K, Elliott EJ. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP. 35(9), 598-609.
    Date: 2014
  16. Productivity Losses Because of Morbidity Attributable to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Canada: A Demographic Approach
    Easton B, Burd L, Sarnocinska-Hart A, Rehm J, Popova S. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 75(6), 1011-1017.
    Date: 2014
  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
    May PA, Baete A, Russo J, Elliott AJ, Blankenship J, Kalberg WO, Hoyme HE. Pediatrics. 134(5), 855-866.
    Date: 2014
  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Management and Policy Perspectives of FASD
    Riley EP, Clarren S, Weinberg J, Jonsson E. New York: Wiley & Sons. .
    Date: 2011 (archived)
  19. Prevalence and Epidemiologic Characteristics of FASD from Various Research Methods with An Emphasis on Recent In-School Studies
    May PA, Gossage JP, Kalberg WO, Robinson LK, Buckley D, Manning M, Hoyme HE. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 15(3), 176-192.
    Date: 2009 (archived)
  20. Estimating the Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Summary
    May PA, Gossage PJ. Alcohol Research & Health. 25(3), 159-167.
    Date: 2001 (archived)