Restrictions imposed through licensing and regulation to limit alcohol availability can curb consumption by reducing the number, types and locations of alcohol outlets, and limiting hours and days of sale for both off-premise (e.g., liquor stores) and on-premise (e.g., bars and restaurants) sales. Privatization of alcohol sales, the process of giving the private sector the responsibility for selling alcohol, tends to result in significantly more off-premise outlets, higher prices for the consumer and increased rates of consumption compared to state government monopolies where the state is a market participant and sells the product. A major challenge in this literature is defining accessibility in a way that is relevant to both urban and rural areas and understanding contextual factors (e.g., socioeconomic factors, population, crime, type of product sold, type of outlet) that may contribute to the alcohol outlet environment.

The Sales and Marketing Practices of English‐Language Internet Alcohol Vendors

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