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Restrictions imposed through licensing and regulation to limit alcohol availability can curb consumption by reducing the number, types and locations of alcohol outlets, and limiting hours and days of sale for both off-premise (e.g., liquor stores) and on-premise (e.g., bars and restaurants) sales. Privatization of alcohol sales, the process of giving the private sector the responsibility for selling alcohol, tends to result in significantly more off-premise outlets, higher prices for the consumer and increased rates of consumption compared to state government monopolies where the state is a market participant and sells the product. A major challenge in this literature is defining accessibility in a way that is relevant to both urban and rural areas and understanding contextual factors (e.g., socioeconomic factors, population, crime, type of product sold, type of outlet) that may contribute to the alcohol outlet environment.

The Effect on Emergency Department Visits of Raised Alcohol Minimum Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada

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Evidence for the Effectiveness of Minimum Pricing of Alcohol: A Systematic Review and Assessment Using the Bradford Hill Criteria for Causality

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Assessing the Impacts of Saskatchewan's Minimum Alcohol Pricing Regulations on Alcohol‐Related Crime

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The Impacts of Minimum Alcohol Pricing on Alcohol Attributable Morbidity in Regions of British Colombia, Canada with Low, Medium and High Mean Family Income

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  1. The Effect on Emergency Department Visits of Raised Alcohol Minimum Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada
    Sherk A, Stockwell T, Callaghan RC. Drug and Alcohol Review. 37 Suppl 1, S357-S365.
    Date: 2018
  2. Evidence for the Effectiveness of Minimum Pricing of Alcohol: A Systematic Review and Assessment Using the Bradford Hill Criteria for Causality
    Boniface S, Scannell JW, Marlow S. BMJ Open. 7(5), e013497.
    Date: 2017
  3. Heavy Drinkers and the Potential Impact of Minimum Unit Pricing—No Single or Simple Effect?
    Gill J, Black H, Rush R, O’May F, Chick J. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 52(6), 722-729.
    Date: 2017
  4. Minimum Unit Pricing for Alcohol: The Most Cost-Effective of Cancer Prevention Strategies?
    Stockwell T. Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy. 17(11), 981-983.
    Date: 2017
  5. Assessing the Impacts of Saskatchewan's Minimum Alcohol Pricing Regulations on Alcohol‐Related Crime
    Stockwell T, Zhao J, Sherk A, Callaghan RC, Macdonald S, Gatley J. Drug and Alcohol Review. 36(4), 492-501.
    Date: 2017
  6. Minimum Alcohol Pricing Policies in Practice: A Critical Examination of Implementation in Canada
    Thompson K, Stockwell T, Wettlaufer A, Giesbrecht N, Thomas G. Journal of Public Health Policy. 38(1), 39-57.
    Date: 2017
  7. Purchases by Heavier Drinking Young People Concentrated in Lower Priced Beverages: Implications for Policy
    Wall M, Casswell S, Yeh LC. Drug and Alcohol Review. 36(3), 352-358.
    Date: 2017
  8. Potential Impact of Minimum Unit Pricing for Alcohol in Ireland: Evidence from the National Alcohol Diary Survey
    Cousins G, Mongan D, Barry J, Smyth B, Rackard M, Long J. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 51(6), 734-740.
    Date: 2016
  9. Heavy Drinkers’ Perspectives on Minimum Unit Pricing for Alcohol in Scotland: A Qualitative Interview Study
    O’May F, Gill J, Black H, Rees C, Chick J, McPake B. Sage Open. 6(3).
    Date: 2016
  10. The Impacts of Minimum Alcohol Pricing on Alcohol Attributable Morbidity in Regions of British Colombia, Canada with Low, Medium and High Mean Family Income
    Zhao J, Stockwell T. Addiction. 112(11), 1942-1951.
    Date: 2016
  11. Minimum Prices for Alcohol and Educational Disparities in Alcohol-Related Mortality
    Herttua K, Mäkelä P, Martikainen P. Epidemiology. 26(3), 337-343.
    Date: 2015
  12. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol
    Keatley DA, Carragher N, Chikritzhs T, Daube M, Hardcastle SJ, Hagger MS. JMIR Research Protocols. 4(4), e127.
    Date: 2015
  13. Effects of Minimum Unit Pricing for Alcohol on Different Income and Socioeconomic Groups: A Modelling Study
    Holmes J, Meng Y, Meier PS, Brennan A, Angus C, Campbell-Burton A, Purshouse RC. The Lancet. 383(9929), 1655-1664.
    Date: 2014
  14. Minimum Unit Pricing for Alcohol
    Stockwell T. BMJ: British Medical Journal. 349, g5617.
    Date: 2014
  15. The Raising of Minimum Alcohol Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada: Impacts on Consumption and Implications for Public Health
    Stockwell T, Zhao J, Giesbrecht N, Macdonald S, Thomas G, Wettlaufer A. American Journal of Public Health. 102(12), e103-e110.
    Date: 2012 (archived)
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