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Restrictions imposed through licensing and regulation to limit alcohol availability can curb consumption by reducing the number, types and locations of alcohol outlets, and limiting hours and days of sale for both off-premise (e.g., liquor stores) and on-premise (e.g., bars and restaurants) sales. Privatization of alcohol sales, the process of giving the private sector the responsibility for selling alcohol, tends to result in significantly more off-premise outlets, higher prices for the consumer and increased rates of consumption compared to state government monopolies where the state is a market participant and sells the product. A major challenge in this literature is defining accessibility in a way that is relevant to both urban and rural areas and understanding contextual factors (e.g., socioeconomic factors, population, crime, type of product sold, type of outlet) that may contribute to the alcohol outlet environment.

  1. Reply To: Effects of a Comprehensive Pro-Alcohol Policy in Washington State
    Kerr WC, Williams E, Ye Y, Subbaraman MS, Greenfield TK. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 54(1), 120-121.
    Date: 2019
  2. Changes in Spirits Purchasing Behaviors After Privatization of Government Controlled Sales in Washington
    Kerr WC, Ye Y, Greenfield TK. Drug and Alcohol Review. 38(3), 294-301.
    Date: 2019
  3. Violent Crime Redistribution in a City Following a Substantial Increase in the Number of Off‐Sale Alcohol Outlets: A Bayesian Analysis
    Gorman DM, Ponicki WR, Zheng Q, Han D, Gruenewald PJ, Gaidus AJ. Drug and Alcohol Review. 37(3), 348-355.
    Date: 2018
  4. Survey Estimates of Changes in Alcohol Use Patterns Following the 2012 Privatization of the Washington Liquor Monopoly
    Kerr WC, Williams E, Ye Y, Subbaraman MS, Greenfield TK. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 53(4), 470-476.
    Date: 2018
  5. Changes in Alcohol Policies and Practices in Bars and Restaurants After Completion of Manager‐Focused Responsible Service Training
    Lenk KM, Erickson DJ, Nelson TF, Horvath KJ, Nederhoff DM, Hunt SL, Toomey TL. Drug and Alcohol Review. 37(3), 356-364.
    Date: 2018
  6. The Impact of Retail Beverage Service Training and Social Host Laws on Adolescents' DUI Rates in San Diego County, California
    Scherer M, Romano E, Caldwell S, Taylor E. Traffic Injury Prevention. 19(2), 111-117.
    Date: 2018
  7. Is Proximity to Alcohol Outlets Associated with Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Harm in Denmark?
    Seid AK, Berg-Beckhoff G, Stock C, Bloomfield K. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 35(2), 118-130.
    Date: 2018
  8. The Effect on Emergency Department Visits of Raised Alcohol Minimum Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada
    Sherk A, Stockwell T, Callaghan RC. Drug and Alcohol Review. 37 Suppl 1, S357-S365.
    Date: 2018
  9. Alcohol Distribution Reforms and School Proximity to Liquor Sales Outlets in New Brunswick
    Slaunwhite AK, McEachern J, Ronis ST, Peters PA. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 108(5-6), 488-496.
    Date: 2018
  10. Estimating the Public Health Impact of Disbanding a Government Alcohol Monopoly: Application of New Methods to the Case of Sweden
    Stockwell T, Sherk A, Norström T, Angus C, Ramstedt M, Andréasson S, Makela P. BMC Public Health. 18(1), 1400-1416.
    Date: 2018
  11. Do Changes in Bar Opening Hours Influence Violence in the Night? Evidence from 13 Bavarian Towns
    Tesch F, Hohendorf L. Journal of Drug Issues. 48(2), 295-306.
    Date: 2018
  12. Mapping Patterns and Trends in the Spatial Availability of Alcohol Using Low-Level Geographic Data: A Case Study in England 2003–2013
    Angus C, Holmes J, Maheswaran R, Green MA, Meier P, Brennan A. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14(4), 406.
    Date: 2017
  13. Evidence for the Effectiveness of Minimum Pricing of Alcohol: A Systematic Review and Assessment Using the Bradford Hill Criteria for Causality
    Boniface S, Scannell JW, Marlow S. BMJ Open. 7(5), e013497.
    Date: 2017
  14. Testing the Impact of Local Alcohol Licensing Policies on Reported Crime Rates in England
    de Vocht F, Heron J, Campbell R, Egan M, Mooney JD, Angus C, Hickman M. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 71(2), 137-145.
    Date: 2017
  15. Liquor Landscapes: Does Access to Alcohol Outlets Influence Alcohol Consumption in Young Adults?
    Foster S TG, Hooper P Oddy WH Wood L Knuiman M. Health Place. 45, 17-23.
    Date: 2017
  16. Does Alcohol Outlet Density Differ by Area‐Level Disadvantage in Metropolitan Perth?
    Foster S, Hooper P, Knuiman M, Trapp G, Wood L. Drug and Alcohol Review. 36(5), 701-708.
    Date: 2017
  17. I'm Not a Regular Mom, I'm a Cool Mom: An Argument for Broader Civil Social Host Liability in Connecticut
    Gancoss K. Quinnipiac Law Review. 35, 2.
    Date: 2017
  18. Heavy Drinkers and the Potential Impact of Minimum Unit Pricing—No Single or Simple Effect?
    Gill J, Black H, Rush R, O’May F, Chick J. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 52(6), 722-729.
    Date: 2017
  19. Washington State Spirits Privatization: How Satisfied Were Liquor Purchasers Before and After, and by Type of Retail Store in 2014?
    Greenfield TK, Williams E, Kerr WC, Subbaraman MS, Ye Y. Substance Use & Misuse. 7-Jan.
    Date: 2017
  20. Comparison of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Policies in the Czech Republic and Norway
    Hnilicová H, Nome S, Dobiášová K, Zvolský M, Henriksen R, Tulupova E, Kmecová Z. Central European Journal of Public Health. 25(2), 145-151.
    Date: 2017
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